The notion of "Europe" and the " Western World " has been intimately connected with the concept of " Christianity and Christendom "; many even attribute Christianity for being the link that created a unified European identity. Christianity , including the Roman Catholic Church ,   has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century,     and for at least a millennium and a half, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture , even though the religion was inherited from the Middle East. Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization , guiding the course of philosophy , art , and science.
Other religions, including Judaism, Hinduism , and Buddhism are minority religions though Tibetan Buddhism is the majority religion of Russia's Republic of Kalmykia. The 20th century saw the revival of Neopaganism through movements such as Wicca and Druidry. Europe has become a relatively secular continent, with an increasing number and proportion of irreligious , atheist and agnostic people, who make up about There are a particularly high number of self-described non-religious people in the Czech Republic, Estonia , Sweden, former East Germany, and France.
South America. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the continent. For the politico-economic union, see European Union. For other uses, see Europe disambiguation. Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. Show national borders. Hide national borders. Further information: Europa mythology. Further information: List of transcontinental countries and Boundaries between the continents of Earth.
Czech Rep. IoM UK. Svalbard Nor. Switz- erland. United Kingdom. Greenland Dk. Arctic Ocean. Baltic Sea. Barents Sea. Bay of Biscay. Black Sea. Caspian Sea. Celtic Sea. Greenland Sea. Baffin Bay. Ligurian Sea. Mediterranean Sea. North Atlantic Ocean. North Sea. Norwegian Sea. Strait of Gibraltar. Further information: Regions of Europe and Core Europe. Main article: History of Europe. Main article: Prehistoric Europe. Main article: Classical antiquity. See also: Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. See also: Dark Ages historiography and Age of Migrations.
See also: Medieval demography. Main article: Early modern period. Main article: Modern history. Main articles: Modern era and History of Europe. Main article: Geography of Europe. Main article: Climate of Europe. Main articles: Geology of Europe and Geological history of Europe. Main article: Fauna of Europe. Main article: Politics of Europe. See also: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe , International organizations in Europe , Regions of Europe , and European integration.
Main articles: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe and Area and population of European countries. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe. Discuss October Main article: Demographics of Europe. See also: List of European countries by population and Ageing of Europe. Main article: Ethnic groups in Europe. Further information: Genetic history of Europe.indigduphecos.ml/6-great-ways-to-keep-yourself.php
The Regional Dimension of Transformation in Central Europe - CRC Press Book
Main articles: Immigration to Europe and European diaspora. Main article: Languages of Europe. Main article: Culture of Europe. Further information: European folklore and European art. Main article: Religion in Europe. Main articles: List of Europe-related articles and Outline of Europe. Europe portal Geography portal. The population and area figures refer to the entire state, including the de facto independent part Northern Cyprus which is not recognised as a sovereign nation by the vast majority of sovereign nations, nor the UN.
Population and density figures are from the first results of census and are given without the disputed territory of Kosovo. Amsterdam is the official capital, while The Hague is the administrative seat. However, only the population figure refers to the entire country. The population and area figures include the entire state respectively. This includes the exclave of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and the region Nagorno-Karabakh that has declared, and de facto achieved , independence.
Nevertheless, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states. International recognition , however, is limited.
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The precision of these figures is compromised by the ambiguous geographical extent of Europe and the lack of references for European portions of transcontinental countries. Its sovereign status is unclear. Its population is July CIA estimate. Their status as sovereign nations is not recognised by a vast majority of sovereign nations, nor the UN.
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Penguin Books. Batsford, London, Theodosius: The Empire at Bay. A History of Greek Literature. Columbia University Press. Cantor , The Medieval World to It is difficult to establish exactly when Islam first appeared in Russia because the lands that Islam penetrated early in its expansion were not part of Russia at the time, but were later incorporated into the expanding Russian Empire. Islam reached the Caucasus region in the middle of the seventh century as part of the Arab conquest of the Iranian Sassanian Empire.
Cambridge University Press. Duiker; Jackson J. Spielvogel The Essential World History. Cengage Learning. Retrieved 20 January The Byzantine Empire also interacted with the world of Islam to its east and the new European civilization of the west. Both interactions proved costly and ultimately fatal. MIT Press. These Christian allies did not accept the authority of Byzantium, and the Fourth Crusade that sacked Constantinople and established the so-called Latin Empire that lasted until was a fatal wound from which the empire never recovered until its fall at the hands of the Ottoman Turks in Queller and Madden The Byzantine Empire Revised Edition.
CUA Press. And though the final blow was struck by the Ottoman Turks, it can plausibly be argued that the fatal injury was inflicted by the Latin crusaders in A Glorious Disaster: A. Christian History Project. Go-Bos Press. Salem Press. However, the fifty-seven years of plunder that followed made the Byzantine Empire, even when it retook the capital in , genuinely weak. Beginning in , the empire was further weakened by a civil war that lasted until When the Ottomans overran their lands and besieged Constantinople in , sheer poverty and weakness were the causes of the capital city's final fall.
Irvin 10 January Continuum International Publishing Group. Not only did the fourth crusade further harden the resentments Greek-speaking Christians felt toward the Latin West, but it further weakened the empire of Constantinople, many say fatally so. After the restoration of Greek imperial rule the city survived as the capital of Byzantium for another two centuries, but it never fully recovered.
Frucht Although the empire was revived, the events of had so weakened Byzantium that it was no longer a great power. Later they established themselves in the Anatolian peninsula at the expense of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines, however, had been severely weakened by the sack of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade in and the Western occupation of much of the empire for the next half century. Western Christians, not Muslims, fatally crippled Byzantine power and opened Islam's path into the West. Rockford Institute. They fatally wounded Byzantium, which was the main cause of its weakened condition when the Muslim onslaught came.
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At the same time, van Duin unpacks a deeper complexity to the politics of ethnonational hierarchies. Being more familiar myself with these later periods of the past century, I could not help but wonder about how these resentments, factions, and anxieties of late to would replay themselves in later political crises of , , , , and Social Democrats struggled to overcome the diverse worldviews and conceits of their ethnonationally conscious memberships.
I found this account extremely enlightening on the challenges of nation-building in East Central Europe in that immediate postwar period with extensions to more recent projects in other corners of the world. In utilizing that scholarship, van Duin makes a commendable effort to evaluate different interpretations, rather than simply synthesize their claims uncritically.
Instead of a discussion of existing work on social democracy or labor history, the introduction contains a brief aforementioned review of a limited set of work on nationalism. After considering the work of Miroslav Hroch, Anthony D. Smith, Ernest Gellner, and Benedict Anderson, the author sides with the work of early twentieth-century theoretician Otto Bauer. More recent developments in the historiography of nationalism in East Central Europe are curiously omitted. In fact, the study of ethnonational transformations in East Central European cities seems to be its own growing field, one that would have been nice for van Duin to have tied into.
The book left me reflecting on the challenges of the kind of synthetic project that van Duin attempted. A study of social democracy, national revolution, and ethnopolitics in a Central European city faces several: sorting out existing local scholarship such as how to evaluate a February massacre or the roles and stances of various political figures , attending to the broader regional sociohistorical context, and developing analytical concepts for use beyond the context of the First Czechoslovak Republic.
Van Duin seems to have gotten pulled between the first two tasks and the third; the first two developed quite well here, but the third underdeveloped and perhaps distracted by the gatekeeping concept of nationalism and national identity for scholarship on the region. Along the way, developments in more recent scholarship--such as on cities--have been overlooked.
The publisher, Berghahn Books, generously allowed this study to reach four hundred pages, a length that felt long for use in courses, but that reflected breadth and depth, rather than redundancy or poor editing. Stylistically, the book is well written. In addition, one of Bratislava itself would have been helpful, especially on pages where the author describes the ethnic distribution of the population across different parts of the city.
Related The Regional Dimension of Transformation in Central Europe (Regions and Cities)
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