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Algorithm for the estimation of ionosphere parameters from ground scatter echoes of SuperDARN
When this signal reaches a ground antenna, the navigation or communications information can be buried in the noise. TABLE 4.
Research has shown that receiver algorithms that have been designed to work in a high-noise environment can be tested by transmissions of satellite signals through regions of the ionosphere disturbed by the HAARP HF transmissions. When the HAARP transmitter is turned on to create field-aligned irregularities but not artificial ionization, the radio scintillation level goes up to about 2 dB.
Such strong scintillation levels are only seen naturally when there is a large auroral disturbance in the ionosphere.
Real-world testing of satellite communications and navigation i. A workshop participant stated that by using HAARP, natural-looking plasma disturbances can be produced at the time that equipment is to be tested for radio scintillation mitigation. HF communications and HF radar systems rely on the ionosphere to refract or scatter ground transmissions back to the ground.
The distance between HF ground-to-ground points depends on the altitude of the ionosphere and on the electron density at the peak of the ionosphere layer: The altitude determines the maximum ground range between the HF transmitter and HF receiver, while the density determines the maximum frequency that can be used. Altitude and density fluctuations in the natural. It is commonly assumed that an HF system with more effective radiated power will have an increased signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver.
However, Paul Bernhardt noted that increasing the transmitter power and antenna gain may cause nonlinearities in the ionosphere that will produce self-modulation, self-absorption, and self-scattering. Thus, HF propagation conditions may become worse for transmissions above a certain power. The effect, called stimulated electromagnetic emission SEE , which introduces additional noise onto the HF signal, is produced by conversion of the electromagnetic wave into electrostatic waves in the ionosphere.
These waves can parametrically decay into low- and high-frequency waves that introduce sidebands on the received signals.
Ionosphere and Applied Aspects of Radio Communication and Radar (豆瓣)
Bernhardt stated that the HAARP transmitter has been used to demonstrate that induced sideband distortions of transmitted HF waves can be found at frequencies as low as 7 Hz and as high as kHz for magnetic stimulated Brillouin scatter, stimulated ion Bernstein decay, lower- and upper-hybrid parametric decay, ion-acoustic and electron plasma wave parametric decay, and other modes. He further noted that for transmissions near the harmonics of the electron cyclotron wave, the sideband generation can be very pronounced.
Self-absorption occurs when the nonlinear interactions convert part of the electromagnetic signal into dissipative plasma modes such as electrostatic waves and electron heating and acceleration.
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